Square Matrix Multiplication in Java

The challenge

Write a function that accepts two square (NxN) matrices (two dimensional arrays), and returns the product of the two. Only square matrices will be given.

How to multiply two square matrices: 

We are given two matrices, A and B, of size 2×2 (note: tests are not limited to 2×2). Matrix C, the solution, will be equal to the product of A and B. To fill in cell [0][0] of matrix C, you need to compute: A[0][0] * B[0][0] + A[0][1] * B[1][0].

More general: To fill in cell [n][m] of matrix C, you need to first multiply the elements in the nth row of matrix A by the elements in the mth column of matrix B, then take the sum of all those products. This will give you the value for cell [m][n] in matrix C. 

Example

  A         B          C
|1 2|  x  |3 2|  =  | 5 4|
|3 2|     |1 1|     |11 8|

Detailed calculation:

C[0][0] = A[0][0] * B[0][0] + A[0][1] * B[1][0] = 1*3 + 2*1 =  5
C[0][1] = A[0][0] * B[0][1] + A[0][1] * B[1][1] = 1*2 + 2*1 =  4
C[1][0] = A[1][0] * B[0][0] + A[1][1] * B[1][0] = 3*3 + 2*1 = 11
C[1][1] = A[1][0] * B[0][1] + A[1][1] * B[1][1] = 3*2 + 2*1 =  8

Link to Wikipedia explaining matrix multiplication (look at the square matrix example): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_multiplication

A more visual explanation of matrix multiplication: http://matrixmultiplication.xyz

The solution in Java code

Option 1:

public class Solution {
    public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) {
        int[][] resultMatrix = new int[a.length][b[0].length];
        for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < b[0].length; j++) {
                for (int k = 0; k < b.length; k++) {
                    resultMatrix[i][j] += a[i][k] * b[k][j];
                }
            }
        }
        return resultMatrix;
    }
}

Option 2:

public class Solution {

  public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) {
    int n = a.length;
    int[][] res = new int[n][n];
    for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
      for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
        for (int k = 0; k < n; k++) {
          res[i][j] += a[i][k] * b[k][j];
        }
      }
    }
    return res;
  }
}

Option 3:

public class Solution {

  public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) {

    int n = a.length;
        int[][] c = new int[n][n];
        for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) {
                for (int f = 0; f < n; f++) {
                    c[i][j] += a[i][f] * b[f][j];
                }
            }
        }
        return c;
  }
}

Test cases to validate our solution

import java.util.Random;
import java.util.function.IntSupplier;

import org.junit.Assert;
import org.junit.Test;

public class SolutionTest {
	

	@Test
  public void exampleTest() {
		
    int[][] a = {
    		{1,2}, 
    		{3, 2}};
		
    int[][] b = {
    		{3,2}, 
    		{1, 1}};
    
    int[][] expected = {
    		{5, 4},
    		{11, 8}};
    
    int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b);
    Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual);
  }
	
	@Test
	public void basicTest() {

		{
			int[][] a = { 
					{ 9, 7 }, 
					{ 0, 1 }};
			
			int[][] b = { 
					{ 1, 1 }, 
					{ 4, 12 }};

			int[][] expected = { 
					{ 37, 93 }, 
					{ 4, 12 }};

			int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b);
			Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual);
		}

		{

			int[][] a = { 
					{ 1, 2, 3 }, 
					{ 3, 2, 1 }, 
					{ 2, 1, 3 }};
			
			int[][] b = { 
					{ 4, 5, 6 }, 
					{ 6, 5, 4 }, 
					{ 4, 6, 5 }};
			
			int[][] expected = { 
					{ 28, 33, 29 }, 
					{ 28, 31, 31 }, 
					{ 26, 33, 31 }};

			int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b);
			Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual);
		}
	}
}

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